A. Know Your Body Type
Body Type is unique to every individual and mostly determined by genes, food habits since birth, physical activity and also medical conditions if any. There are majorly 3 kinds of body types that are segregated according to the individuals fat burning capacity, metabolism, body structure, ability to do physical activities and mostly importantly the rate at which one deposits fat in their body. You can figure out what your body type is in the below given explanations.
Ectomorph - People who have a slender built and are thin, lean and lanky. They comparatively have long limbs and a shorter trunk. They have a very high BMR, i.e, fast metabolism. These people tend to have a low fat percentage and low muscle mass and also find it extremely difficult to gain muscular size and body weight. Their body composition is less muscles and fats.
Endomorph - People who have a big and wide bone structure with a long trunk, short and heavily fleshed arms and legs; and a large abdomen. These people have a low BMR and a slower metabolism and eventually show a strong tendency to gain weight by storing fat easily. Their body composition has more fats, less muscles.
Mesomorph - These people are genetically gifted with the best body building potential. They have a muscular built and perform well in sports. They retain good musculature and stay lean despite a bad diet and irregular exercise, at least during their youth. This is due to being genetically gifted with the number of muscle cells/fibre per square inch in regards to the skeletal muscles. They also have significantly less number of fat cells. Their body composition has more muscles and less fat.
B. Know Your Food
Obesity is a condition where excess body fat deposition in the body has lead to ill effects on health. It is commonly caused due to excessive over abuse of food intake, lack of any physical activity and also sometimes due to genetic inheritance. Obesity of a person is determined by the person’s body mass index (BMI), which is calculated by dividing an individual’s body weight by the square of the individual’s height, is over 30kg/m2. Obesity can be cured completely with a disciplined diet, exercise regime and immense self control and consciousness.
Our body requires namely 3 major macronutrients, carbohydrates, fats and proteins. These nutrients are required by humans in large quantities on a daily basis hence macro. Every macronutrient has its own individual characteristic and role to play. Excessive overdo of any nutrient would lead to adverse effects causing diseases that can live a lifetime.
Carbohydrate is nutrient made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. It’s primary function is to provide energy to the body once broken down. Each gram of carb gives us about 4 kilo calories of energy. There are different types of carbs that act differently when eaten and that determines how and what is important when consumed. Conventional study tells us about how carbs are useful to the body, they emphasise on the fact that the primary role of carbs is to provide energy to cells all over the body, when in fact it’s the Ketones and Glucose that provide energy to the body, both of which are derived from Fats. It was also believed that carbs was the only source of energy for the brain, central nervous system and red blood cells. Its is glucose that is the only energy source for RBCs and liver cells. The brain actually thrives on ketones. It is scientifically incorrect to use the term glucose & carbohydrate/glucose inter-changeably.
Protein is the only nutrient made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Nitrogen being prominent reason why it has the special property to repair muscle. A protein is made up of chain of amino acids that are joined after one another in sequence. There are about 20 different amino acids that are used to make proteins & its sequence is it identity. A protein chain can be made up of 50/100 long amino acids but there are all picked from those 20 amino acids. Thus protein in chicken, eggs, fish and human muscles are all different as each one has its own sequence of the 20 amino acids. The basic functions of protein is structure and strengthening of muscles, bones, teeth and hair. It also controls body hormones except for sex hormones.
Fats or Lipids are substances that don't mix with water and are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. As compared to carbs and proteins, each gram of fat gives about 9 kilo calories of energy, which in itself tells us that fats could be a much better source of fuel for our body. The various functions of fats other than energy is also cell structure maintenance, synthesis of sex hormones, it acts as shock absorbent and is also helping absorb vitamins A, D, E and K.
Our body requires namely 3 micro nutrients, vitamins, minerals and fibres. These nutrients are required by body in small quantities and are yet essential. There are different types vitamins, minerals and fibres that have their own unique qualities and vary in the proportion according to their vitality. Depriving your body of these micro nutrients can have adverse effect on the body.
Vitamins & Minerals.
These are absorbed by your body through diet, can't be made in the body except few such as Vitamin D and K. Vitamins and Minerals are needed by your body in small quantity e.g; mg or mcg; few need in gram (>10g). These micronutrients are not responsible for supplying energy. Vitamins are organic, bigger & complex structures made up of carbon and hydrogen. Minerals are inorganic, simpler structures such as calcium, sodium and iron. They act as antioxidants and fight free radical attacks e.g; A, C, E and minerals like selenium, chromium, copper and magnesium. B complex vitamins act as as an aide to energy during workouts. Vitamin B12, folic acid & iron maintain haemoglobin levels for oxygen transportation in blood. Calcium, vitamin D, K, phosphorous and magnesium maintain bone density and ensure smooth muscle contraction.
Vitamins are of 2 types, fat soluble and water soluble. Fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E and K, they are stored in the liver. There is a risk of excess overdose of these vitamins and also there is a low risk of deficiency. Water soluble vitamins are C and B complex, these vitamins are not stored and are thrown out daily. These have no risk of excess but a high risk of deficiency.
Minerals are of 3 types namely, macro minerals are consumed in grams e.g; calcium, electrolytes like sodium and potassium. Trace minerals are consumed in milligrams e.g; iron and ultra trace minerals are consumed in micrograms e.g; chromium and selenium.
Dietary fibre or roughage is the indigestible part of food derived from plants. It has two main components, soluble and insoluble fibre. Dietary fibre changes the nature of the contents of the gastronomical tract and by changing how other nutrients and chemicals are absorbed. Soluble fibre is readily absorbed in water and is fermented in the colon into gases and physiologically active by products. Insoluble fibre which does not dissolve in water, is metabolically inert and provided bulking or it can be prebiotic and metabolically ferment in the large intestine. Bulking fibres absorb water as they move through the digestive system, easing defecation.